As many of you prepare for upcoming grant application deadlines, it is important to carefully consider your impending scientific review group, study section, or review committee—don’t underestimate the importance of knowing your ‘audience’. Certainly, strategically writing the scientific aspects of your proposal is essential but it is also important to carefully prepare for your review and the reviewers. A few tips: (1) If information is available, take time to read up on the study sections and the study section members or reviewers. Many sponsors consider this information as public domain so it is often available on the Internet or through written request. For example, NIH provides a listing of all study sections including all study sections, names of the Scientific Review Officers (SROs), and meeting rosters. (2) Prepare a cover letter for your application that is tailored to the needs of your application. For an NIH application, your cover letter may request a specific institute and study section. A cover letter may be used also to explicitly state the type of expertise needed to review your application, especially if you believe your content area is not well represented on a review group. It may also indicate a list of certain competitors (or individuals with whom you have conflicts) to exclude as potential reviewers. (3) Engage some of your peers as “mock reviewers” specifically requesting feedback on potential turn offs in your application, including technical turn-offs such as lack of white space or inadequate use of headers. (4) If you have been a grant reviewer, think about the issues that turned you off. Several months ago NIH asked a group of senior scientists with extensive grant review experience to share their thoughts about how not to “turn off” reviewers. I could summarize, but I would be shortchanging their simple but impactful points. Take a few minutes to read their reactions, tips, and turn-offs. Again, preparing for the review is an important task that is often undervalued—I encourage you not to wait until the last minute to consider these strategies.